Kết nối đến Postgres bằng Rust

Getting Start

    In this article we'll take a look at how to setup a Rust project and connect to postgresql and do some basic insert and select query. Our demo project will be a famous Todo list which will perform some insert and list todo from the database out into stdout. We will be using diesel a schema migration management and ORM crate to interact with the db.

Project Setup

    Let's start by setting up our demo project. We'll be using docker for this. First lets generate a new rust project with the following command. With this a new demo directory will be created on the host machine.

$ docker run --rm -v $(pwd):/usr/src/app rustlang/rust:nightly bash
$ cargo new demo

    Then write our base image Dockerfile.

FROM rustlang/rust:nightly

RUN cargo install cargo-watch
RUN cargo install diesel_cli --no-default-features --features postgres

WORKDIR /usr/src/app

CMD ["cargo", "watch", "-x", "run"]

    Our base image here is simple, pull in the rust image as a base, install some development tool that we need like cargo-watch to recompile when the source code change and diesel_cli for schema management as we'll see in the next section. The last line is to just start our application and watch for file changes.

    Next lets take a look at docker-compose file. Our goal is to connect to PostgreSQL so we should also start a db container so that our app can connect to as well so the final file should looks like this.

version: "3"

    build: .
      - .:/usr/src/app
      - cargo:/root/.cargo
      - db
    image: postgres:9.6-alpine
      - pgdata:/var/lib/postgresql/data/pgdata
      POSTGRES_PASSWORD: secret123
      PGDATA: /var/lib/postgresql/data/pgdata

  cargo: {}
  pgdata: {}

    The cargo volume is here to cache the downloaded crate so that when we shutdown and then spin the container backup it doesn't re-download all the crate again.

Schema & Migration

    Now that we have a rust project up and running, it's time to setup our database schema. Create a .env file with the following content and spin up our containers with docker-compose then run the following command

# .env
$ docker-compose exec web bash
$ diesel setup

    This will create a migrations directory along with src/schema.rs and diesel.toml. Usually schema.rs file will be automatically updated whenever we add a new migration so we don't need to touch this file, but the one that will be interested in is the SQL files in migrations.

    Let start by creating a todos table

$ diesel migration generate create_todos

    The command will generate migration SQL file inside of migrations so let modify it like below

# up.sql

# down.sql

    After that run diesel migration run to migrate our schema. The diesel_cli has a lot of other command to help use manage our application schema and for more details checkout diesel.

Connecting to PostgreSQL

    Now that we have our table ready, let start off by establishing connection to db with the following code. But before that open up Cargo.toml and add the following dependencies.

diesel = { version = "1.4.4", features = ["postgres"] }
dotenv = "0.15.0"
// src/main.rs
extern crate diesel;
extern crate dotenv;

use diesel::pg::PgConnection;
use std::env;
use dotenv::dotenv;

fn main() {
    if let Ok(url) = env::var("DATABASE_URL") {
        let conn = PgConnection::establish(&url)
            .expect("could not connect to database");
    } else {
        println!("No DATABASE_URL set")

    First we import diesel and dotenv crate into scope and notice the #[macro_use] which import the marco from diesel into current scope, which will allow us to define ORM mapping to our struct later on. The dotenv crate being used here for ease of development to load environment variables from .env file. Next we call PgConnection::establish to open a connect to db.

Select Todo

    In order to get data from our database lets define Todo struct to map to our todos table. To make diesel knows how to filled in the database from db into our struct we need to make it queryable by implement a Queryable trait from diesel::deserialize module. The easiest way to do this is to use derive macro like we did below. Queryable trait along with others that we will need can be imported with diesel::prelude::*

use diesel::prelude::*;

#[derive(Debug, Queryable)]
struct Todo {
    id: i32,
    name: String,

    Next lets' write a function to select the first 10 todos from the db with the following code

pub mod schema;

use schema::todos;

fn query_todos(conn: &PgConnection) {
    let rows = todos::table
        .expect("could not load todos");
    for row in rows {
        println!("{:?}", row);

    todos::table was generated by diesel when we ran diesel migration run. This command updated src/schema.rs with the following code. The table! macro defined a lot of things for us and todos::table is one of the DSL we can use. For a more detail checkout the link to diesel documentation in the previous section.

table! {
    todos (id) {
        id -> Int4,
        name -> Text,

    Thanks to Todo derive from Debugtrait when printing result with println! macro we'll get a nice result like this.

    Todo { id: 1, name: "todo01" }

Insert Todo

    Since rust is strict on type checking, we will get into trouble if we use Todo struct to do the insertion, because then we will need to manually generate id for every new record we want to insert, but we want to avoid that and let postgres do the increment for us, so instead let define a new struct for inserting a new todo.

#[derive(Debug, Insertable, QueryableByName)]
struct NewTodo<'a> {
    name: &'a str,

    Notice the different between Todo and NewTodo is that now we want NewTodo to be insertable into the db that's why we derive it from Insertable trait and since there is no new_todos table in our db we need a way to map this struct to our todos table, hence, we derive it from QueryableName and tell it that the table name is actually todos with #[table_name="todos"] attribute. Also we want to be able to use both String and &str as input name so we defined our name field to be &str since it's a field of struct any reference need a life time specifier and need named it 'a.

    The insert function is simple we just supply the connection and a name to the new todo to the function and call the function import from diesel to do the job. Again for more detail checkout the documentation.

fn insert_todo<'a>(conn: &PgConnection, name: &'a str) -> Todo {
    let new_todo = NewTodo{
        name: name,

        .expect("error saving new todo")

    The last step is to call these functions from main to insert and select the record.

fn main() {
    if let Ok(url) = env::var("DATABASE_URL") {
        // code
        // insert some todos
        insert_todo(&conn, "todo01");
        insert_todo(&conn, "todo02");
        insert_todo(&conn, "todo03");
        insert_todo(&conn, "todo04");

    } else {
        // code


    https://diesel.rs/guides/getting-started https://docs.rs/crate/cargo-watch/7.0.2 https://docs.rs/dotenv/0.15.0/dotenv/

Nguồn: Viblo

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